An old unsolved mystery of the solar system is why the outer atmosphere of the sun which is millions of degrees hot than its surface, which is only 6,000 degrees hot? We can expect Parker Solar Probe of NASA to throw some light on this question after its encounter with sun.
One possibility suggests that the reason might be the back and forth movement of small magnetic waves between the upper atmosphere and the surface of the sun. Justin Kasper, climate and space sciences professor and a lead author in a new research said that it has been a puzzle for us for the past 500 years; but soon in the coming 2 years, Parker Solar Probe will solve the great mystery.
So far, scientists have discovered that the strange, superheating process of the sun takes place when some singular chemical particles heat up to various temperatures and some charged ion particles heat up more than the core of the sun. This whole heating process makes the corona or the solar atmosphere. It is this part of the sun that is visible at the time of total solar eclipses. Another phenomenon in this atmosphere is the Alfven Waves. These are small magnetic waves which are present in an electrically conducting fluid inside the magnetic field. The solar wind moves fast at the edge to escape these waves.
The scientists have always focused on helium, the most important element in the sun. Now, they are more intended on finding the point to which the heat of the sun goes above its surface. Their previous analysis has given surprising results. They noticed that the Alfven Point and the superheating zone moved in a predictable manner, although being independent calculations. So, soon the Parker will get closer to the sun and collide with these boundaries, around 2021, and send the data which might give a whole new picture of the sun.