Past thousands of years, the human body has evolved so as to thrive on the surface of the Earth. However, the current study enlightens the changes an earthbound body undergoes when left in the weightlessness of space. The study may sound weird but there are some changes that the astronauts’ bodies definitely undergo when in space. The tissues near the optic nerves tend to swell and show a certain change in the eyeball’s appearance. In space, the lack of gravity makes the bones more brittle and causes muscles atrophy as well. Lately, human exploration of space has increased in terms of duration and frequency. The White House has ordered NASA to commence the mission to Moon by 2024.
The plan has been put forward so as to construct a lunar gateway, which is a space station believed to orbit the Moon. This mission can help sketch the mission to Mars as well. According to Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, it is the time that humans become a part of the interplanetary system. They plan to build a roadmap to space in the coming years. The space missions depend on one aspect that is whether the human body can withstand the space-related changes. The answers to it are still unclear. For now, the effects of radiation as per the report submitted by the ESA in 2018 include that the humans are exposed to several hundred times of radiation doses when in space compared to Earth. NASA’s Curiosity rover has already shown that 0.3 sieverts of radiation is experienced and 1 sievert is studied to put the astronaut at 5.5% of cancer risk while 8 sieverts will kill them.
In 2015, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly was sent for a year’s stay in space in order to understand the impact of the space environment on humans. The researchers compared him with his twin to understand the effect right from the physical to the mental level. The genomic or epigenetic studies were carried out for understanding the causes of the cognitive or mental issues developed. For calculating the upper limit time of staying space, there is a need for more research to be done.